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LAW 350: Environmental Law

When to Cite Sources

For Research Papers and Other Writing Projects

When citing sources in research papers, use a conventional style, such as APA, MLA, Chicago, or Turabian. Check with your instructor as to what style to use. Each style specifies a uniform way of citing sources that will:

  1. Give an orderly appearance to your bibliography or reference list
  2. Provide all the essential elements of information that a reader will need to locate the source.

    For Speeches

    When giving a speech, cite your sources orally.  Provide enough information to allow an audience member to locate the source.  Typically, you should include:

    • author or creator  
    • title of the work
    • date

    Additionally, consider offering a brief statement about your source’s credibility by stating the source’s connection to the topic.

     

    For PowerPoint Presentations

     

    When you use PowerPoint, be sure to cite sources for any direct quotations or images appearing on a slide.  Write the information in a small font in a textbox at the bottom of the slide or under the image. 

    If you use a graphic from the Internet, you should cite it, too, unless it is in the public domain (freeware).

    Your instructor may also expect you to include a bibliography slide at the end of your slideshow.   Your bibliography should not take the place of appropriate oral citations offered during your presentation.

    Citation and Writing Styles

    Comparing Reference Management Software

    Use any of the programs below to help you with your citing and managing your research.

    Software Developer Open source EXPORT FORMATS

    Notes

    EndNote Web Thomson Reuters No    PubMed, RIS, SciFinder Available to current BU students through Library’s Web of Science  subscription. More information here.
    Mendeley Mendeley No    BibTeX, PubMed, RIS Free. Desktop & Web components, iPhone and iPad
    RefWorks RefWorks No    BibTeX, PubMed, RIS, SciFinder Available to BU (both current and alumni) students through Library subscription. More information here.
    Zotero Center for History and New Media at GMU Yes BibTeX, PubMed, RIS Free. Firefox extension or standalone connectors for Chrome and Safari. 

    Reference Management Systems

    Supported by Bloomsburg University

    Writing and Citing Help

    Print Style Guides

    The following print style manuals are all available in the Andruss Library Reference collection:

    • APA Style - Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
      Used in the social sciences (education, health sciences, psychology, business, etc.). APA style requirements and examples for all types of information sources are listed.


    • CSE Style - Scientific style and format : the CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers."This manual is the seventh edition of the style manual that was first issued by the Council of Biology Editors (now the Council of Science Editors)..." 

    • MLA Style - MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Used in the artis This book presents Modern Language Association's style requirements and provides examples for all types of information sources.

    • Turabian/Chicago - A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. This book presents Turabian/Chicago style requirements and provides examples for all types of information sources.

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