Skip to main content

General Library Research Tutorial

Fundamental concepts and vocabulary used in library and information research.

E. Boolean Operators

Boolean Operators

Use Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) to combine keywords in a search.

1.  Use AND to narrow a search. Both and/or all search terms must be present in all references retrieved.
      Example:  global warming AND forests                         


2.  Use OR to expand a search. Your search will retrieve records with EITHER of the terms.  OR is most
     often used to combine synonyms or like terms.

      Example:  hyperactivity AND children or adolescents

3.  Use NOT to exclude a term. Records with the first term will be retrieved, but any records with the
     second term will be eliminated.

eating disorders NOT bulimia





Subject Librarians

Information Literacy Instruction

Off-Campus Access

Interlibrary Loan

Chronicle of Higher Education

Reserves/Fair Use

Ask Us

Research Consultations

Renew Books Online

Request a Purchase

Group Study Rooms

Open Computers

About Us 

Library Fines

PA Resident Cards

Suggestion Box


Giving to the Library

Andruss Library | 570-389-4205 |
©Copyright Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania • 400 East Second Street, Bloomsburg PA 17815-1301 • 570.389.4000