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General Library Research Tutorial

Fundamental concepts and vocabulary used in library and information research.

E. Boolean Operators

Boolean Operators

Use Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) to combine keywords in a search.

1.  Use AND to narrow a search. Both and/or all search terms must be present in all references retrieved.
 
      Example:  global warming AND forests                         

 

2.  Use OR to expand a search. Your search will retrieve records with EITHER of the terms.  OR is most
     often used to combine synonyms or like terms.

      Example:  hyperactivity AND children or adolescents



3.  Use NOT to exclude a term. Records with the first term will be retrieved, but any records with the
     second term will be eliminated.

     Example: 
eating disorders NOT bulimia

 

 

 

 

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